Rainfall Distribution in the Upper East Region of Ghana, 1976 – 2016
The knowledge and understanding of rainfall distribution of a region are very essential and useful in determining the overall impacts of climate change, especially to the agricultural sector. Monthly rainfall data from 1976-2016 for five selected stations were acquired and subjected to various statistical techniques namely coefficient of variation, 5-year moving average and departure from the mean to obtain the variability and trends in the data. The results showed that the selected stations have uni-modal rainfall distribution and that the rain mostly starts in May and ends in September. High precipitation occurs in July, August and September, with August recording the highest amount with a low variability, indicating the reliable occurrence of precipitation within this period of the year. This is of high importance to farmers and the recharging of aquifers. The wettest station was Zuarungu, with a mean total monthly rainfall of 89.55 mm followed by Navrongo, Bolgatanga, Garu and Manga-Bawku with their respective mean total monthly rainfall as 81.08 mm, 80.59 mm, 79.64 mm and 78.86 mm. High annual variability was found in all the stations and long dry spells were observed from November to March. The rainfall season wet period is between July and September at all the stations and it is recommended that farmers should cultivate early-maturing crops and adopt irrigation farming practices as well as practices which utilize water efficiently.
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