Phytochemical, Antinutrient and Radical Scavenging Potential of Parkia Biglobosa Seeds as affected by Fermentation and Extraction methods
Plants contain important bioactive compounds which possess radical scavenging ability. Processing methods such as fermentation and the kind of solvents used in extraction induces the plant to make available these bioactive compounds. Parkia biglobosa seeds are commonly fermented into a food spice called ‘‘Dawadawa’’ utilized as a condiment in soups and stews possessing varying nutritional and medicinal benefits. The study evaluated the phytochemical, antinutrients content and antioxidant potential of raw and fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds extracted either with methanol or water. Phytochemical presence in the seeds was influenced by extraction solvent and fermentation. Total Phenolic Content was found to be 30.05-147.52 and 21.59-141.41 mg GAE/g of extract in methanol raw and methanol fermented seeds, respectively. While the aqueous raw and fermented had 14.89-72.80 and 19.84-85.19 mg GAE/g, respectively. The fermented and raw Parkia biglobosa seed extracts exhibited great reducing and free radical scavenging properties by reducing ferric (Fe3+) to ferrous (Fe2+). Furthermore, fermentation reduced phytate and oxalate content in the unfermented seeds from 3.410 mg/g to 0.925 mg/g and 5.717 mg/g to 1.356 mg/g, respectively on the sixth day of fermentation. Thus, fermentation increases the phenolic content and the antiradical activity of Parkia biglobosa seed and enhances its nutritional value due to the reduction in the antinutrient content.
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